Posted 12 July, 2013 by Stuart Torres in Heritage

Chuwa Nima'Ab'Äj (Old Resume)

LOCATION: San Martin Jilotepeque, Chimaltenango.
HOURS: 8:00 – 16:00 (Lunes a Domingo)
COLLECTION OF INCOME: According to Government Agreement 282-2007
FOREIGN: Q 50.00
Agreement 430-2013 Chuwa Nima'Ab'Äj (Old Resume)

Mixco Viejo


GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION: At a distance of 60 km., Guatemala City. Situada a 980 meters above sea level, a unos 6km. West of the river inflow Pixcayá, in the northwest corner of the department of Chimaltenango.

TEMPORADALIDAD: City Postclassic (900 A 1524 d. C.).
MANOR: Kaqchikel
Rediscovery YEAR: 1896 (by the German scientist Karl Sapper).


Chuwa Nima'Ab'Äj (Old Resume) It is a city surrounded by purely defensive canyons and buildings protected by stone walls staggered. Their structures, of which most were stone foundations to accommodate construction of perishable materials at the top. Comprised of four main groups of structures:

Group A Group B Group C Group E

Other smaller groups

Ax Bx Group Group Group C 'Group D Group E'
Group F Group G Group H

The city was settled at the confluence of rivers and river Motagua Pixcayá. The place has a defensive configuration for location. The top contains 12 structures comprising group 120 buildings, which mostly consist of bases on which there were constructions perishable.

The buildings are arranged around plazas, which are composed of pyramidal temples, elongated platforms, altars and courtyards to the ball game. These groups were used by the major lineages, while most of the population of the city was based around these complex. Is estimated to reach the site reached a maximum population of 1,450 a 1,600 people in their time of greatest height.

Research has identified three main groups site that rise along the plateau, Group A civic plaza located in the ceremonial, is the one that is closest to the Motagua River and is comprised of a ball game or closed-type terminals, pyramidal temple, an altar at the center postponed, seven platforms over ten rectangular and small residential platforms.


Group B is located on a circular elevation which is accessed by a brick terrace of 4 meters long and is composed of the so-called "twin pyramids" and a small altar in front. Also part of this group, a small pyramid, four altars in the center of the square, elongated four platforms in conjunction with two small and closed type ball game. Finally, the group C is located on the top of Resume Viejo and is separated from the previous groups and elevated by a massive brick terrace with two staircases. It consists of a pyramid, an elongated platform and two altars in the center, and a structure that represents the best residential unit build you the site and it still retains its stucco plaster with paint chips, columns and more than one room.

The building materials used in the city were blocks of pumice, slabs and clay, shale stone, covered with a layer of stucco painted different colors. Site The pottery tradition is distinguished by the white lines on red polychrome pieces that make up the ceramic type called Fort White on Red that is characteristic of the region and was a common type in the central plateau. They have been found a 52 shaped urns pitchers in the bases of the monuments of the site, where through their study was able to establish that its use was associated with the burial customs of the elite. Obsidian was worked lithic material in preference, because they were found in large number of scrapers, spearheads, ornaments and obsidian cores. The largest percentage of this material comes from the site of St. Martin Jilotepeque was even exported to sites of central Mexico. A level sculpture, has been discovered so far a ball game marker representing the open jaws of a huge snake with a human head emerging from her.


At the time of the conquest of Pedro de Alvarado, Kaqchikels choose to conduct guerrilla warfare. Alvarado obtained information from a place where its real and had settled a cave where a huge treasure hidden 'La Cueva Encantada », who was among the Nimaya' Pixkaya' and rivers in the city of Chuwa Nima'Ab'Äj (Old Resume). The secret of the enclosure was the birth of water called Qate 'Ya', "Mother Water". Spring Subway is considered sacred because it was born from the bowels of the hill where stood the city. This feature gave independence to take the water effluent disposal.

The Spanish had formed an idea of ​​The Enchanted Cave, according to them this cave had a beautiful wood door framed by stone masonry and stucco approximately 3 meters high. A fully carved and colorful entry, wild flower motif, vines, birds, deer, cougars, bats and crowning the fabric overlapped one Feathered Serpent, symbol Q'uq'kumatz, the founder of this lineage.

It's when Pedro de Alvarado then sends his brother Gonzalo de Alvarado to make this site and grab the treasure. Assigned 3 companies to the company, one infantry armor and two of those capes were Alonso de Ojeda, Luis Hernando de Vivar y Chavez.

Reach the valley where Chuwa Nima'Ab'Äj (Old Resume) and they were amazed to see the number of buildings resting on the mantle of earth, was so astonished that became convinced of the validity of treasure seeking. They surrounded the whole environment seeking a way to the city acensar, more search was futile because the city was full of rocks around your around. Furthermore constructions (walls) of defense were at strategic points in the city, were other impediments to besiege the city.

Three Spanish companies were in a vast plain called "Llano Grande», located south of the citadel. From this location the Spanish were able to observe the movements being performed within the city. The city had a secret entrance only. This was an outspoken narrow zigzag path located on the north side of the lift carved into a nearly vertical slope that starts at the river bed to the entrance Pancacó located more than 150m up. Although it was difficult the conquest of the city by the Spanish, its inhabitants fought to the last moment. Chuwa Nima'Ab'Äj (Old Resume) is burned and left abandoned in the sixteenth century.

In 1896 (360 years after the conquest of Chuwa Nima'Ab'Äj), Check this place a German archaeologist named Karl Sapper, that is installed in the middle of the ruins and passes 8 days making notes and making drawings of the archaeological site. In 1954 started the site investigation, under the leadership of Franco Guatemalan Mission, directed by Dr. Henri Lehmann conducted in 4 seasons, where it consolidates and restoring most of the structures. Unfortunately the earthquake 1976 caused great damage to the site, by flawed methodology applied.

Kaqchikel Chronicles of colonial documents as Ch'ajoma, Xajil, Xpantay, Title Jilotepeque and The Annals of the Cakchiquel appoint Pek Resume Q'eqak'ajol Old and Nima Ab'aj Chuwa meaning "Large stone before the cave of the children of the night", which may be associated with the cave that is located south of the city and a large boulder north of it which could be referred to as the great stone. Recent research has suggested that the historical identification was known by the seventeenth-century chronicler Francisco Fuentes and Guzman in his "Memorial Florida", Site of Old Resume is the so-called Old Jilotepeque site Carmack. The foundation of the city is given by Pokomames who are expelled from Baja Verapaz by expansion K'iche 'and reaching the plateau in conjunction with ch'ajoma, descendants of Zacualpa.

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Stuart Torres