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Posted 9 July, 2013 by Stuart Torres in Heritage
 
 

National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology


 

• Address:
The National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology is located on 6th Street and 7th Avenue, Hall No. 5 of the finca the Aurora, area 13 in Guatemala City to 5 minutes from La Aurora International Airport.
• Telephone:
Fax (502) 2475 4399 – 2475 4406 – 2475 4010
• Tarifa:
Rates
Visitantes nacionales: Q.5.00
Visitantes extranjeros: Q. 60.00
Children under 9 years old, acompañados de un adulto, free.
Escuelas e Institutos públicos: Free admission
Maestros acompañantes: Q.5.00
• Hours:
Abierto: De Martes a Viernes de 9:00 a 16:00 hours. Sábados y domingos de 9:00 a 12:00 and 13:30 a 16:00 hours.
Closed: Los lunes, 24-25 December. 31 de diciembre y 1 January.
Access to the Museum, transport means:
The museum can be reached by the 6th street coming from Pamplona, by the Liberation Boulevard, by 7th Avenue past the overpass Tecum Uman. Also, by 6th street coming from La Aurora International Airport. Se cuenta con amplio parque, no hay rampa de acceso para discapacitados o carruajes para niños. Adentro, hay facilidad de desplazamiento.
• Email: munae@itelgua.com
• Web: http://www.munae.gob.gt


History of the Museum

In 1875 se creó el museo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, primero al que se le pudo considerar de carácter nacional por corresponder a la época independiente, opened on 7 January 1866 con la presencia de funcionarios de gobierno y representantes de la iglesia. (Luján L. y S Mérida, 1955). El museo funcionó en la entrada principal del edificio de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País hasta 1881, cuando ésta fue suprimida por decreto gubernativo, sus colecciones pasaron a formar parte del Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad de San Carlos (Lujan Muñoz, The, 1971). Para ese entonces el museo era de índole general e incluyó no sólo objetos arqueológicos y etnológicos, sino también mineralogía y otros. In 1871, el gobierno emitió un decreto para la creación de un museo nacional, siendo éste realmente el principio del Museo Nacional de Guatemala que funcionó hasta los años de 1917-1918, cuando lo destruyó un terremoto. La emisión de un decreto con fecha de 14 July 1922 le dio forma legal. Este decreto amplió las actividades del museo y por su medio se oficializaron las áreas correspondientes a la arqueología, la linguistica y arte antiguo (Rubin de la Bordolla, D.F. y H. Cerezo D. 1953).

En ese momento se hizo conciencia de su necesidad en el país y como consecuencia, in 1931 tuvo su origen el actual Museo nacional de Arqueología y Etnología ubicado en la antigua iglesia de El Calvario, en la ciudad capital (Luján Muñoz, The. 1971). El Museo nacional se trasladó al Parque la Aurora y se inauguró en el salón principal en junio de 1931. Entre sus colecciones se encontraban diversos objetos arqueológicos provenientes de varios sitios del país, algunos de ellos producto de excavaciones controladas realizadas por proyectos extranjeros.

Debido a problemas de remodelación del salón donde estaban ubicadas las instalaciones, in 1947 se trasladó al lugar que actualmente ocupa en el Edificio No 5, Finca la Aurora, area 13. Las instalaciones fueron arregladas, y se abrió al público en septiembre de 1948.

In 1937 se inició la formación de la valiosa colección etnológica con las primeras donaciones que hicieron jefaturas e intendencias Municipales y Departamentales y por compras que realizó el museo. Funcionó con varias salas de exhibición hasta 1972, cuando fue necesario cerrarlo al público debido a problemas estructurales del edificio, el cual se reforzó y acondicionó para darle seguridad. Se aprovechó para remodelar su interior y realizar un montaje museográfico que presentara mejor las exhibiciones. Se reabrió al público en 1977, aunque el montaje total se concluyó hasta 1980. Con el terremoto del 4 de febrero se 1976 las colecciones de arqueología y etnología no sufrieron daños.

In 2001 se impulsa una nueva reestructuración del museo, impulsada por la dirección del museo y un grupo de profesionales de diversas disciplinas, en ésta se incluyen proyectos como la habilitación de la Biblioteca, la Fototeca y la Videoteca del museo y las áreas de educación, la relación con la comunidad, la administración, las instalaciones y la museología (conservation, restoration, register).

Esta remodelación concluye en 2007 con la creación del registro de buena parte de la colección y la creación de la sala de clásicos, donde se exhiben los objetos arqueológicos más representativos del Museo, así como una muestra de textiles contemporáneos

 

Permanent and temporary exhibitions

The permanent exhibition of the National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology is divided into 10 main rooms. It begins with the introductory room that presents the peopling of America, area location map of Mesoamerica, technology room and instruments, then find Preclassic rooms, Classic period, including room jades, the archaeological site Tikal room, monuments area; the Postclassic peíodo room, to end the ethnological room.

The archaeological exhibition illustrates the development of Maya culture organized in their periods, Preclassic (2,000a. c. al 250d.c.), Classical (250 go 900d. c.) y Postclásico (900 to 1,450 of. c.).In the early Preclassic, subsistence was based on hunting, gathering and incipient agriculture. Eventually they came to develop complex irrigation systems, which produced food reserves and support for an entire population.

Towards the end, had emerged the foundations for the development of a great civilization, which had highly developed urban centers, and increased trade and cultural relations with distant cultures.

The most significant cultural events of this period are, the appearance of pottery circa 1,500-1,200 a. c. and the development of the pyramid. Some important sites were: Kaminaljuyú in Guatemala City, Uaxactún and El Mirador in the Peten and El Baul on the South Coast.

During the Classic period that formed new political systems were developed states, which vied for power. The territories were well defined and were managed by a centralized hierarchical authority. Progressive requirement to increase their prestige and dynamism of a society in constant growth, led to the development of science and arts, the expansion of interregional trade, political propaganda and alliances between dynasties.

The apogee of culture manifested by the appearance of his multicolor ceramic, for use in the architecture of the Maya vault, with the cult of the altar and stela and the style of hieroglyphic texts that recorded significant events and calendar dates. Some of the major sites of this period are: Tikal-declared World Heritage-, Blue River, Orange in the Petén and Takalik Abaj in Retalhuleu.

The Postclassic was characterized by military power that prevailed over religious, forcing residents to move to inaccessible places or walled, to safeguard. There were significant migrations from the highlands of Guatemala Peten and Yucatan, and from Mexico to the coast and highlands. With the arrival of the Toltecs Pipil and the use of leaden Tohil and fine orange pottery was incorporated, and the taste for gold and copper versatility.

Also, migration led to the formation of new cultural groups like the Cakchiquel, Quiche, tzutuhiles, Mames, pokomames, kekchíes, pokomchíes, chortís, pipiles y xincas, leading to a new social organization.

Territorial expansion was at its peak, so each group extended their lands to the south coast, where they stocked up on cocoa, salt and other marine products. These kingdoms fought for supremacy until the arrival of the conquistadors and formed the multicultural spectrum that has reached this. Some of the major sites of this period are: Tayasal en Petén y Gumarcaah, Iximché and Zaculeu in the Guatemalan highlands.

At the beginning of the colonial period, in the sixteenth century, indigenous communities scattered throughout the Guatemalan landscape were reorganized into new towns, which through the centuries acquired characteristics.

The essence of the ancient Mayan civilization persists to the present, manifested in the worldview, Maya languages, traditions, customs and the permanence of old techniques, arts and crafts. Oral tradition and everyday practice, channels are transmitting culture, which dynamically evolves with the needs of new generations.

The multiculturalism of the Guatemalan nation is based on the ancient pre-Hispanic heritage and that of those people of European and African origin, which at present share a common history of 500 years old. Xincas, garífunas, ladinos y 21 Maya people, based identity and national unity.

Collections

The National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology protects one of the collections of objects most important pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica. This collection consists of 20, 000 pieces approximately, between vessels, censers, vessels, stelae, ornaments, inter alia, making it easy to show the historical sequence of pre-Hispanic times in different regions of the country, in Preclassic, Classic and Postclassic.

Likewise, this is complemented by a valuable collection of twentieth-century textiles approximately 4,000 pieces of different villages, municipalities and departments. Also, it has a collection of objects and twentieth century ethnographic photographs and original boxes and Manuel Tejeda Proskouriakoff Fonseca.

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Broadcasting or projection area or education museological: The National Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology provides guide services for elementary students, basic and diversified. These are supplemented with materials consisting of worksheets to review the topics covered on permanent display.

Services are there in the museum: It has a library containing an area of ​​inquiry for all domestic and foreign visitors. It also has a shop called "The Chayal", managed by the Foundation G&T Continental, in which sell handicrafts and publications that refer to the Museum.

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Stuart Torres